1. Finding Your Way Around Elements – Photoshop Elements 8 for Windows: The Missing Manual [Book] – Fotobearbeitung als Vollversion
For other information, see the Ghostscript overview and, if necessary, how to install Ghostscript. This document describes how to use the command line Ghostscript client. Ghostscript is also used as a general engine inside other applications for viewing files for example. Please refer to the documentation for those applications for using Ghostscript in other contexts. The command line to invoke Ghostscript is essentially the same on all systems, although the name of the executable program itself may differ among systems.
For instance, to invoke Ghostscript on unix-like systems type:. There are other utility scripts besides ps2pdf , including pdf2ps , ps2epsi , pdf2dsc , ps2ascii , ps2ps and ps2ps2. These just call Ghostscript with the appropriate if complicated set of options. You can use the ‘ps2’ set with eps files. The interpreter reads and executes the files in sequence, using the method described under ” File searching ” to find them.
The interpreter runs in interactive mode by default. After processing the files given on the command line if any it reads further lines of PostScript language commands from the primary input stream, normally the keyboard, interpreting each line separately.
To quit the interpreter, type ” quit “. The interpreter also quits gracefully if it encounters end-of-file or control-C. The interpreter recognizes many options. An option may appear anywhere in the command line, and applies to all files named after it on the line. The most important are described in detail here.
Please see the reference sections on options and devices for a more complete listing. You can get a brief help message by invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -?
On Windows, the two digit number indicates the word length of the system for which the binary was built so gswin And the “c” suffix indicates a Windows console based binary note that the “display device” window will still appear.
Selecting an output device Ghostscript has a notion of ‘output devices’ which handle saving or displaying the results in a particular format. Ghostscript comes with a diverse variety of such devices supporting vector and raster file output, screen display, driving various printers and communicating with other applications. If this option isn’t given the default device usually a display device is used.
Ghostscript’s built-in help message gs -h lists the available output devices. For complete description of the devices distributed with Ghostscript and their options, please see the devices section of the documentation.
Note that this switch must precede the name of the first input file, and only its first use has any effect. For example, for printer output in a configuration that includes an Epson printer driver, instead of just ‘gs myfile. You can set the output device and process a file from the interactive prompt as well:. All output then goes to the Epson printer instead of the display until you do something to change devices.
You can switch devices at any time by using the selectdevice procedure, for instance like one of these:. Some printers can print at several different resolutions, letting you balance resolution against printing speed. To select the resolution on such a printer, use the -r switch:. Where the two resolutions are same, as is the common case, you can simply use -r res.
The -r option is also useful for controlling the density of pixels when rasterizing to an image file. It is used this way in the examples at the beginning of this document.
Ghostscript also allows you to control where it sends its output. With a display device this isn’t necessary as the device handles presenting the output on screen internally. Some specialized printer drivers operate this way as well, but most devices are general and need to be directed to a particular file or printer. For instance, to direct all output into the file ABC. On Unix and VMS systems it normally goes to a temporary file which is sent to the printer in a separate step.
When using Ghostscript as a file rasterizer converting PostScript or PDF to a raster image format you will of course want to specify an appropriately named file for the output.
Ghostscript also accepts the special filename ‘ – ‘ which indicates the output should be written to standard output the command shell. Note, some devices e. For example, in order to create two PDF files from a single invocation of ghostscript the following can be used:. Specifying a single output file works fine for printing and rasterizing figures, but sometimes you want images of each page of a multi-page document.
You can tell Ghostscript to put each page of output in a series of similarly named files. The format specifier is of a form similar to the C printf format. The general form supported is:. For more information, please refer to documentation on the C printf format specifications.
Some examples are:. Note, however that the one page per file feature may not supported by all devices. Also, since some devices write output files when opened, there may be an extra blank page written pdfwrite, ps2write, eps2write, pxlmono, pxlcolor, As noted above, when using MS Windows console command. As a convenient shorthand you can use the -o option followed by the output file specification as discussed above.
This is intended to be a quick way to invoke ghostscript to convert one or more input files. Ghostscript is distributed configured to use U. There are two ways to select other paper sizes from the command line:. Individual documents can and often do specify a paper size, which takes precedence over the default size. The default set of paper sizes will be included in the currentpagedevice in the InputAttributes dictionary with each paper size as one of the entries.
The last entry in the dictionary which has numeric keys is a non-standard Ghostscript extension type of PageSize where the array has four elements rather than the standard two elements.
This four element array represents a page size range where the first two elements are the lower bound of the range and the second two are the upper bound.
By default these are [0, 0] for the lower bound and [16 fffff, 16 fffff] for the upper bound. For actual printers, either the entire InputAttributes dictionary should be replaced or the range type entry should not be included.
Using this option will result in automatic rotation of the document page if the requested page size matches one of the default page sizes. This allows the -dPSFitPage option to fit the page size requested in a PostScript file to be rotated, scaled and centered for the best fit on the specified page. See the section on finding files for details. For a4 you can substitute any paper size Ghostscript knows. On Windows and some Linux builds, the default paper size will be selected to be a4 or letter depending on the locale.
As noted above, input files are normally specified on the command line. However, one can also “pipe” input into Ghostscript from another program by using the special file name ‘ – ‘ which is interpreted as standard input. When Ghostscript finishes reading from the pipe, it quits rather than going into interactive mode.
Because of this, options and files after the ‘ – ‘ in the command line will be ignored. On Unix and MS Windows systems you can send output to a pipe in the same way. For example, to pipe the output to lpr , use the command. In this case you must also use the -q switch to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages to standard output which become mixed with the intended output stream.
The example above would become. In the last case, -q isn’t necessary since Ghostscript handles the pipe itself and messages sent to stdout will be printed as normal.
All the normal switches and procedures for interpreting PostScript files also apply to PDF files, with a few exceptions.
At present the old PostScript-based interpreter remains the default, in future releases the new C-based interpreter will become the default, though we would encourage people to experiment with the new interpreter and send us feedback. While there are two interpreters the command-line switch NEWPDF will allow selection of the existing interpreter when false and the new interpreter when true. In addition different instances of fonts with the same name are now enumerated.
This is useful for creating fixed size images of PDF files that may have a variety of page sizes, for example thumbnail images. Annotation types listed in this array will be drawn, whilst those not listed will not be drawn. In this case the pages will be processed backwards from LastPage to FirstPage. If there is no page range then all even or odd pages are processed in forward order. For PostScript or PCL input files, the list of pages must be given in increasing order, you cannot process pages out of order or repeat pages and this will generate an error.
PCL and PostScript require that all the pages must be interpreted, however since only the requested pages are rendered, this can still lead to savings in time. Because these file types provide for random access to individual pages in the document these inerpreters only need to process the required pages, and can do so in any order.
Because the PostScript and PCL interpreters cannot determine when a document terminates, sending multple files as input on the command line does not reset the PageList between each document, each page in the second and subsequent documents is treated as following on directly from the last page in the first document.
The PDF interpreter, however, does not work this way. The PostScript interpreter, by contrast, would only render pages 1 and 2 from the first file. This means you must exercise caution when using this switch, and probably should not use it at all when processing a mixture of PostScript and PDF files on the same command line. Occasionally you may try to read or print a ‘PDF’ file that Ghostscript doesn’t recognize as PDF, even though the same file can be opened and interpreted by an Adobe Acrobat viewer.
In many cases, this is because of incorrectly generated PDF. Acrobat tends to be very forgiving of invalid PDF files. Ghostscript tends to expect files to conform to the standard. In the past, Ghostscript’s policy has been to simply fail with an error message when confronted with these files. This policy has, no doubt, encouraged PDF generators to be more careful.
1. Finding Your Way Around Elements – Photoshop Elements 8 for Windows: The Missing Manual [Book].
8. Introduction to Photoshop Elements. Last updated 11/5/ Add photos faster including HEIF files in Photoshop Elements. Order photo prints, gifts. Use this guide to know how Photoshop Elements can help you create, edit, organize and share images using creative features and more.